ECUADOR

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GENERAL DATA

Poverty rate:

34.2%

out of the total population as of December 2019.

MIGRATION DATA

  • Sending country: About 2 million Ecuadorians or 11% of the population, reside abroad mainly in the US (out of the 790,000 that reside there, 150,000 are undocumented), Spain (430,000) and Italy (77,000).

  • Destination country: About 510,000 immigrants, representing the 3% of the total population live in Ecuador, mainly from Venezuela (50%), Colombia (25%), other nationalities such as the US, Peru, Cuba and Haiti. 

  • Transit country: Caribbean, South American, Asian, Middle Eastern, and African migrants transit Ecuador en route to the US. This transit is also heading south to Peru to continue en route to the countries of the Southern Cone. They are mainly Venezuelan, Haitian, Cuban and African migrants.

  • Country receiving national deportees: Ecuadorian deportees are coming mainly from the US.  

  • Host country for refugees: 68,000 people have been recognized as refugees. 97% out of that total are of Colombian nationality.  

IMPACT BY COVID-19

Hover over the country where you want to know the data.

* daily data update

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STATE MEASURES

  • Land borders remain closed. The two main airports (Guayaquil and Quito) opened operations since June. The frequency of national and international flights has gradually increased, and intensive biosecurity controls have been put in place. Likewise, the national COE eliminated the mandatory preventive isolation for international travelers who enter the country with a negative PCR test as of August 14.

  • At the land borders, we find several military control operations directed at illegal crossings, which have increased due to the closure and militarization of official crossings. For example, on June 11, one was held on the northern border, before which a group of merchants strongly protested the lack of employment that led them to smuggling. Around 26 unauthorized border crossings are known through which migrants, people in need of international protection and merchants have continued to cross, most of whom have paid traffickers for the crossing service.

  • On June 23, 2020, an agreement was reached between Colombia and Ecuador to facilitate the circulation of vehicles through the common border. The purpose of the agreement is to allow the return of people who were stranded in both countries.

  • Immigration registration was carried out for the Venezuelan population so that they might access the Temporary Residency Visa for Humanitarian Reasons (VERHU). According to Ministerial Agreement No. 000003 (03-19-2020), it was decreed: “To suspend all deadlines and terms related to administrative procedures on human mobility, in its field of control, as of March 19, as long as they declared health emergency continues.” However—and despite the fact that the health emergency continues in the country, as well as the state of exception—the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Human Mobility ended this suspension of enforcement on August 23.

  • The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Human Mobility began to process, with many difficulties and delays, refugee applications online.

  • The Ecuadorian State approved the Organic Law of Humanitarian Support to combat the Covid-19 health crisis. Article 24 indicates that: “Prioritization of hiring workers, professionals, acquiring goods and services of local origin, for the implementation of plans, programs, projects, actions, incentives, and public policies to face and mitigate the consequences of the national health emergency due to the coronavirus COVID-19. The public and private sectors will prioritize hiring producers from the popular and solidarity economies, contracting with peasant family farming production units, associations, cooperatives, small and medium farmers, fish farmers, poultry farmers, fishermen, artisans, ranchers and other food producers, as well as companies, professionals, goods and services of national origin, according to the regulations issued for the relevant authorities.” In this way, migrant workers are explicitly excluded.

  • On the other hand, the same Organic Law of Humanitarian Support prohibits evictions in leases until sixty days after the end of the state of exception due to the pandemic, that is, until November 12, 2020.

  • 950,000 families that live day to day benefited from a special protection bond that consists of the monetary transfer of USD $120 in two payments, made between May and June 2020. This bond did not explicitly exclude migrants, but the requirements are not attainable for migrants, these include: possession of an Ecuadorian identity card and registration with the Rural Social Security or the Unpaid Home Work regime.

  • Twice monthly flights with people deported from the United States continue to arrive in the city of Guayaquil. There have been 27 known flights during the year 2020.

If you want to learn more about the solidarity networks generated during the pandemic in Ecuador, which have also targeted the migrant population, visit this map developed by the Colectivo de Geografía Crítica de Ecuador and Fundación Rosa Luxemburgo.